Video Modeling: What is it?

What is it?

Video-modeling is an evidence-based intervention strategy that integrates visually cued instruction and the processes of observational learning.

Visually cued instruction is simply using visual cues (pictographic or written) to support understanding. Many of our students with language impairments demonstrate relative strengths processing information visually. Ganz et. al (2008) found that the use of visually cued instruction increased imitation skills and decreased reliance on physical and verbal prompts in children with Autism and other developmental delays.

Observational Learning

Observational learning is the process of learning through watching others, retaining the information, and then later replicating the behaviors that we observed. There are four processes involved in observational learning: attention, retention, production, and motivation.

Video modeling (VM) supports the processes of observational learning in the following ways:

  • Attention: VM improves the attention of students by selectively focusing their attention on relevant stimuli and effectively removing extraneous visual/auditory stimuli and the pressures of social interaction.
  • Retention: VM improves memory and recall by offering repeated viewings and therefore frequent, consistent repetition of the targeted skill.
  • Production: VM intervention procedure requires practice of the targeted skill after each viewing offering active learning opportunities through production of the skill.
  • Motivation: ”Several researchers posit that VM interventions by virtue of the visual medium are inherently motivating and naturally reinforcing” (Corbett & Abdullah, 2005). A study by D’Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor (2003) demonstrated the effects of VM absent of physical prompting, error correction, and extrinsic reinforcement from adults—essentially exposure to the video models and increased opportunity to access the materials/situations presented in the videos was enough to cause improvements in the targeted skill.

Video Modeling is a well-validated, evidence-based behavioral intervention that facilitates observational learning using modeling and visually cued instruction. It has proven to be an effective intervention strategy for teaching Autistic children novel communication skills, social skills, play routines, self- regulation strategies, academic skills, and community life skills.

Benefits of Video Modeling (VM)

  • VM leads to faster acquisition and greater maintenance of skills compared to in-person modeling and discrete trial training.
  • VM results in greater generalization across settings, stimuli, and communication partners.
  • VM is associated with increased spontaneous, unscripted verbal behavior.
  • VM offers predictability which reduces anxiety and supports emotional-regulation necessary for learning.
  • VM supports the development of self-visualization, which is an important executive functioning skill necessary for self-regulation and increased autonomy.

Video Modeling Example

You can download the Video Modeling for Toy Routines: Tools Boom Card Deck for free here to try this intervention out for yourself!

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Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of Video Modeling and Video Self- Modeling Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 264–287.

Corbett, Blythe & Abdullah, Maryam. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention. 2. 10.1037/h0100294.

D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5-11.

Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42.

Ganz, J. & Bourgeois, Bethany & Flores, Margaret & Campos, B.. (2008). Implementing Visually Cued Imitation TrainingWith Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Delays. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 10. 10.1177/109830070731

Hine, J. F., & Wolery, M. (2006). Using point-of-view video modeling to teach play to preschoolers with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26(2), 83-93.

Lequia, Jenna & Wilkerson, Kimber & Kim, Sunyoung & Lyons, Gregory. (2014). Improving Transition Behaviors in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 17. 10.1177/1098300714548799.

Using Behavior Routines in Speech Therapy

What are behavior routines?

Behavior routines are sets of expectations consistently implemented and reinforced in order to support attention, self-regulation, and autonomy.

Why use behavior routines?

First, establishing behavior routines frees up cognitive resources allowing you and your students to focus on what is really important–the intervention. As with anything, when you are learning to do something it requires attention and effort, but after you do it CONSISTENTLY and REPEATEDLY it becomes automated. Once your students have learned the behavior routines, they will implement them automatically allowing them to focus their effort and attention on you and the skill you are targeting.

Second, establishing behavior routines supports self-regulation and increases autonomy. I can relate to my students who feel disregulated when things are unexpected or outside of my control. Establishing routines provides your students with consistency, which supports self-regulation. Additionally, once the routines are established your students do not need to rely on you to know what to do, which gives them autonomy and a sense of control.

What do behavior routines look like in speech therapy?

FREEBIE! Click here to download the visuals pictured above.

My school district uses the Responsive Classroom Model, which is a student-centered, social and emotional learning approach to teaching and discipline. It is evidence-based and emphasizes building interest in learning through engaging academics, positive community, effective management, and developmental awareness. I use many of the components in my own behavior routines.

One component of classroom management that they teach is the idea of using “teacher language” to effectively communicate expectations to your students. I use “teacher language” (i.e., reminding language, reinforcing language, and redirecting language) to consistently reinforce the routines I have established with my students. They have an excellent book about this topic called The Power of Our Words by Paula Denton Ed.D. I wrote a four-part blog series about how it applies to Speech Language Pathologists, if you are interested you can check that out here.

In my description of my personal speech therapy routines above, I mention two resources that I incorporate into my routines that help establish a rhythm to the session: goal nameplates and speech bins. You can read more about those tools here: goal name tags & speech bins.

What do behavior routines look like in your speech therapy sessions?

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Extended School Year Planning Ideas: Week 5 – Camping

Extended School Year Plan:

I cannot believe this is already the last week of Extended School Year. Every year it just flies by! I am looking forward to my two week mini-summer vacation. I usually have a camping trip planned for this time of year, but with all of the uncertainty my fiancé and I have decided to stick close to home with a few hiking trips. However, I will be enjoying some of the camping fun with our last Extended School Year theme! Click the image below to download this week’s therapy planning guide with clickable links.

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Extended School Year Planning Ideas: Week 4 – Zoo

Extended School Year Plan:

One of my favorite things to do with my students when the schools first closed was check on the hippos on the zoo cameras. It felt very grounding in a very anxious time. Things are still uncertain, but those hippos are still swimming around! This week we will be checking back in on our zoo friends and doing several other zoo themed activities. Click the image below to download this week’s therapy planning guide with clickable links.

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