Video Peer-Modeling: Video of a peer completing the routine. Students attend best to video models that share similar characteristics to themselves (Bellini & Akullian, 2007).
Video Self-Modeling: Video of the student completing the routine. Videos depicting the targeted student must only show successful attempts of the targeted skill. Strategic taping and editing must be used to show the child successfully completing the routine (Bellini & Akullian, 2007).
Video Perspective-Modeling: Video of a routine filmed from the perspective of the student.
Check out an example of video perspective-modeling here.
Phases of Intervention
Introduce the edited video of the desired skill to your student by first simply playing it in the student’s presence—no expectations or demands at first.
Watch the video with the student. You can either listen to the embedded audio or mute the videos and speak your own simplified narration as the routine plays. It can be helpful to pair steps of the video with visual icons to provide greater visually cued instruction. After viewing the video model, practice the skill through discrete practice sessions or role-playing (this is the production process of observational learning). Offer prompts, cues, immediate models, and redirection as needed for the student to be successful.
Consistently watch the appropriate video before completing a targeted routine to ensure sufficient exposure to the model. Each time the student completes the routine fade prompts and cues to scaffold to independence. As the student becomes more successful with the routine periodically review the video models as professionally determined.
A Note About Motivation
Encourage the student attend to the videos using verbal redirection cues but remember attention is not a prerequisite skill for learning and research has indicated modeling and frequent exposure are sufficient to support learning without hand-over-hand assistance and use of external reinforcers or punishments (D’Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor, 2003).
Video-modeling is an evidence-based intervention strategy that integrates visually cued instruction and the processes of observational learning.
Visually cued instruction is simply using visual cues (pictographic or written) to support understanding. Many of our students with language impairments demonstrate relative strengths processing information visually. Ganz et. al (2008) found that the use of visually cued instruction increased imitation skills and decreased reliance on physical and verbal prompts in children with Autism and other developmental delays.
Observational learning is the process of learning through watching others, retaining the information, and then later replicating the behaviors that we observed. There are four processes involved in observational learning: attention, retention, production, and motivation.
Video modeling (VM) supports the processes of observational learning in the following ways:
Attention: VM improves the attention of students by selectively focusing their attention on relevant stimuli and effectively removing extraneous visual/auditory stimuli and the pressures of social interaction.
Retention: VM improves memory and recall by offering repeated viewings and therefore frequent, consistent repetition of the targeted skill.
Production: VM intervention procedure requires practice of the targeted skill after each viewing offering active learning opportunities through production of the skill.
Motivation: ”Several researchers posit that VM interventions by virtue of the visual medium are inherently motivating and naturally reinforcing” (Corbett & Abdullah, 2005). A study by D’Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor (2003) demonstrated the effects of VM absent of physical prompting, error correction, and extrinsic reinforcement from adults—essentially exposure to the video models and increased opportunity to access the materials/situations presented in the videos was enough to cause improvements in the targeted skill.
Benefits of Video Modeling (VM)
VM leads to faster acquisition and greater maintenance of skills compared to in-person modeling and discrete trial training.
VM results in greater generalization across settings, stimuli, and communication partners.
VM is associated with increased spontaneous, unscripted verbal behavior.
VM offers predictability which reduces anxiety and supports emotional-regulation necessary for learning.
VM supports the development of self-visualization, which is an important executive functioning skill necessary for self-regulation and increased autonomy.
Video Modeling Example
You can download the Video Modeling for Toy Routines: Tools Boom Card Deck for free here to try this intervention out for yourself!
Thanks for reading!
Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of Video Modeling and Video Self- Modeling Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 264–287.
Corbett, Blythe & Abdullah, Maryam. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention. 2. 10.1037/h0100294.
D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5-11.
Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42.
Ganz, J. & Bourgeois, Bethany & Flores, Margaret & Campos, B.. (2008). Implementing Visually Cued Imitation TrainingWith Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Delays. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 10. 10.1177/109830070731
Hine, J. F., & Wolery, M. (2006). Using point-of-view video modeling to teach play to preschoolers with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26(2), 83-93.
Lequia, Jenna & Wilkerson, Kimber & Kim, Sunyoung & Lyons, Gregory. (2014). Improving Transition Behaviors in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 17. 10.1177/1098300714548799.
This month I will be using Sports & St. Patrick’s Day themes!
Head on over to my freebie library to download your copy of the March Speech Therapy Ideas sheet with clickable links to picture books, articles, web-based games, videos, & Seldom Speechless resources. All activities are great for teletherapy or in-person and best for preschool & elementary-aged kiddos!
Synopsis: “Most people believe that the best way to motivate is with rewards like money—the carrot-and-stick approach. That’s a mistake, says Daniel H. Pink (author of To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Motivating Others). In this provocative and persuasive new book, he asserts that the secret to high performance and satisfaction-at work, at school, and at home—is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.
Drawing on four decades of scientific research on human motivation, Pink exposes the mismatch between what science knows and what business does—and how that affects every aspect of life. He examines the three elements of true motivation—autonomy, mastery, and purpose-and offers smart and surprising techniques for putting these into action in a unique book that will change how we think and transform how we live.”
The big focus of Drive is that all people are born curious, intrinsically motivated, and in desire of autonomy. It is the focus on extrinsic rewards that turns us into mice in a maze just seeking out that cube of cheese.
Below are my biggest takeaways as a pediatric SLP from Drive by Daniel H. Pink. If you see something interesting, please check this book out for much more information and specific research studies from which this information is derived.
Extrinsic Motivation: “if, then” reward systems
When an extrinsic reward is offered before a task has even begun, the task is immediately perceived as undesirable. Perceiving a task as undesirable before even attempting it takes away the autonomy of possibly finding joy, interest, or challenge in the task. If you are primed to view the task as undesirable, you are unlikely to meaningfully engage in the activity in the first place and you are less likely to pursue additional opportunities to engage in the task.
Lepper et. al (1973) conducted a study on preschool-age children, who demonstrated a personal preference for drawing. The children were divided into three groups. Group one was promised a reward after the study, group two was given a surprise reward after the study, and group three had no rewards mentioned. All children were asked to draw a picture and then given their reward or not depending on which group they were assigned. The children were then watched over several weeks to see how much they would continue to pursue opportunities to draw. The results of the study indicated that those children promised a reward showed a significant decrease in intrinsic motivation to pursue opportunities to draw. They actually chose to draw half as many times as they did prior to the study.
Several research studies demonstrated that offers of extrinsic reward narrowed the person’s focus, which negatively impacted their productivity, creativity, flexible thinking, and problem solving abilities. Offered a reward, the person simply rushes to reach the end result for the reward, which decreases their opportunity for long term learning and minimizes carryover of skills.
Intrinsic Motivation: “Now that” reward systems
“Now that” rewards are basically naturalistic consequences and specific positive feedback that follow completion of a task. “Now that we finished retelling the story, let’s pick out a new book.” “Now that you finished saying that word, I noticed you kept trying when it was difficult to place your tongue in the correct position to make the /r/ sound.”
In the Lepper et. al (1973) study referenced above, the children who were randomly given a reward after they finished drawing or who were given no reward showed no significant changes to their level of intrinsic motivation.
For “now that” rewards to be successful, they should arise naturally after the task has been completed. The consequence should be something that would naturally follow, like a break or a special interest, rather than a piece of candy or a small trinket. Specific feedback can also serve as a natural consequence. Feedback is most beneficial when it provides specific information about what the child did successfully. (For more information on providing specific feedback, check out this post!)
Have you read Drive by Daniel H. Pink? What were your takeaways?