Video Peer-Modeling: Video of a peer completing the routine. Students attend best to video models that share similar characteristics to themselves (Bellini & Akullian, 2007).
Video Self-Modeling: Video of the student completing the routine. Videos depicting the targeted student must only show successful attempts of the targeted skill. Strategic taping and editing must be used to show the child successfully completing the routine (Bellini & Akullian, 2007).
Video Perspective-Modeling: Video of a routine filmed from the perspective of the student.
Check out an example of video perspective-modeling here.
Phases of Intervention
Introduce the edited video of the desired skill to your student by first simply playing it in the student’s presence—no expectations or demands at first.
Watch the video with the student. You can either listen to the embedded audio or mute the videos and speak your own simplified narration as the routine plays. It can be helpful to pair steps of the video with visual icons to provide greater visually cued instruction. After viewing the video model, practice the skill through discrete practice sessions or role-playing (this is the production process of observational learning). Offer prompts, cues, immediate models, and redirection as needed for the student to be successful.
Consistently watch the appropriate video before completing a targeted routine to ensure sufficient exposure to the model. Each time the student completes the routine fade prompts and cues to scaffold to independence. As the student becomes more successful with the routine periodically review the video models as professionally determined.
A Note About Motivation
Encourage the student attend to the videos using verbal redirection cues but remember attention is not a prerequisite skill for learning and research has indicated modeling and frequent exposure are sufficient to support learning without hand-over-hand assistance and use of external reinforcers or punishments (D’Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor, 2003).
Video-modeling is an evidence-based intervention strategy that integrates visually cued instruction and the processes of observational learning.
Visually cued instruction is simply using visual cues (pictographic or written) to support understanding. Many of our students with language impairments demonstrate relative strengths processing information visually. Ganz et. al (2008) found that the use of visually cued instruction increased imitation skills and decreased reliance on physical and verbal prompts in children with Autism and other developmental delays.
Observational learning is the process of learning through watching others, retaining the information, and then later replicating the behaviors that we observed. There are four processes involved in observational learning: attention, retention, production, and motivation.
Video modeling (VM) supports the processes of observational learning in the following ways:
Attention: VM improves the attention of students by selectively focusing their attention on relevant stimuli and effectively removing extraneous visual/auditory stimuli and the pressures of social interaction.
Retention: VM improves memory and recall by offering repeated viewings and therefore frequent, consistent repetition of the targeted skill.
Production: VM intervention procedure requires practice of the targeted skill after each viewing offering active learning opportunities through production of the skill.
Motivation: ”Several researchers posit that VM interventions by virtue of the visual medium are inherently motivating and naturally reinforcing” (Corbett & Abdullah, 2005). A study by D’Ateno, Mangiapanello, & Taylor (2003) demonstrated the effects of VM absent of physical prompting, error correction, and extrinsic reinforcement from adults—essentially exposure to the video models and increased opportunity to access the materials/situations presented in the videos was enough to cause improvements in the targeted skill.
Benefits of Video Modeling (VM)
VM leads to faster acquisition and greater maintenance of skills compared to in-person modeling and discrete trial training.
VM results in greater generalization across settings, stimuli, and communication partners.
VM is associated with increased spontaneous, unscripted verbal behavior.
VM offers predictability which reduces anxiety and supports emotional-regulation necessary for learning.
VM supports the development of self-visualization, which is an important executive functioning skill necessary for self-regulation and increased autonomy.
Video Modeling Example
You can download the Video Modeling for Toy Routines: Tools Boom Card Deck for free here to try this intervention out for yourself!
Thanks for reading!
Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of Video Modeling and Video Self- Modeling Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 264–287.
Corbett, Blythe & Abdullah, Maryam. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention. 2. 10.1037/h0100294.
D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1), 5-11.
Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42.
Ganz, J. & Bourgeois, Bethany & Flores, Margaret & Campos, B.. (2008). Implementing Visually Cued Imitation TrainingWith Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Delays. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 10. 10.1177/109830070731
Hine, J. F., & Wolery, M. (2006). Using point-of-view video modeling to teach play to preschoolers with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26(2), 83-93.
Lequia, Jenna & Wilkerson, Kimber & Kim, Sunyoung & Lyons, Gregory. (2014). Improving Transition Behaviors in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 17. 10.1177/1098300714548799.
My favorite goal to target in speech therapy is narrative expression. First of all, it is a powerful skill. The world is mediated through language…just try to go a day without telling someone a narrative. Narrative expression is required in both academic and social interactions! It is even included in common core standards. Second, it consistently shows up in research articles as an evidence-based practice for widespread gains in developing expressive and receptive language skills. I work on developing narrative expression with nearly all of my elementary-aged language students. One study I have been referencing a lot recently has been:
There is tons of literature available that looks at the benefits of shared book reading in young children for vocabulary development and the benefits of narrative instruction in older students, but a big missing gap looking at the impact of narrative instruction in developmentally young children.
The authors of this study were specifically researching the impact of narrative instruction on young learners from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Their results indicated significant gains in the areas of vocabulary, narrative expression, and grammar.
The clinicians in the research study implemented a specific protocol for targeting narrative with the young learners. Here is a brief outline of the Structured Narrative Retell Instruction (SNRI) Protocol: 1. Read aloud a picture book with a true narrative structure. Meaning it has a character, setting, at least one problem, at least one attempt, and a resolution. 2. Guide the student(s) through think-alouds as you read the story (e.g., make predictions, draw attention to story grammar elements, define Tier 2 vocabulary), using visual supports to scaffold success during and after reading. 3. Review story grammar elements in the story through comprehension questions. Provide “modeling, prompting, recasts, and expansions to encourage more complex language use.” 4. Students retell the story using visual supports and verbal prompts from the clinician to scaffold success. 5. Students further engage with the story through an art project. Using the information from this study and my clinical experience targeting narrative expression in early elementary-aged students, I created the Story Grammar Review Boom Card Deck Bundle to help me systematically target story grammar elements in a consistent, visual, and interactive way. The Bundle is available on both Boom Learning and Teachers Pay Teachers. It contains two products, which I will describe below:
Story Grammar Review Boom Card Deck
Introduces and reviews each of the story grammar elements (i.e., character, setting, blast off, emotional reaction, plan, actions, resolution, and wrap-up) through:
Say & check definitions
Interactive instructional tasks (Examples, design a character, design a setting, create a blast off, match the emotion, match the plan, identify the actions, and match the resolution)
Two graphic organizers to use with any narrative, includes visual supports.
Five open-ended scenes with story grammar element checklists to support students in independently creating their own narratives.
Book Companion Story Grammar Review Boom Card Decks
Each of the book companion Story Grammar Review Boom Card decks were specifically designed to follow the format of the SNRI protocol outlined in the Adolf et al., 2014 article.
1. Picture books with true narrative structure were chosen for instruction 2. Story map to aid with think-alouds during reading 3. Story grammar comprehension questions 4. Story retell organizers with and without visual aids from the story 5. Open-ended scene, which can be used to support students in independently retelling the story, as well as help them further engage with the story through creative expression
Slide show of Book Companion Story Grammar Review Decks available in the Story Grammar Review Decks Bundle on Boom Learning Now